Short note on computer generations | Introduction to Computer Generations

Computer Generations


(The History of Computer)

Short Introduction to Computer Generation

We are surrounded by computers. Nowadays, no work is possible without a computer. In this digital world, other devices like Mobile, Tablet are also working like computers. Office, company, college, research are being used in every field. 

This Computer is an electronics device that takes input from the Input Device like Keyboard, Mouse (which the user enters), then processes Input data only (via CPU) and results in Output Device (Output Device Such as Monitor, Printer, Projector). Mainly a computer does three functions Input, Processing, Output. 

Let us now know how the computer was many years ago and how it changed.

First Generation of Computer:

The first generation period dates back to 1937–1953. The world's first and largest ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) computer was built by two great scientists. It was a Fully Electronic Digital Computer. The generation of computers started from here.

But in this generation of computers, the Vacuum tube was used for memory. Due to the large size of the Vacuum Tube, these computers used more memory with limited memory. Because a large amount of heat was generated in these computers.

Features of first-generation computers-

  • Manufactured by Vacuum tube
  • Use of machine language
  • Too expensive
  • Too big in size
  • Overweight and slow
  • AC required
  • Use of large amounts of electricity
  • Use of punch cards and magnetized tapes for input and output

Names of first-generation computers

  • MARK-1

Second Generation of computer

The second-generation period is considered to be from 1954–1962. In this generation, the transistor was used by replacing the Vacuum tube. 

The transistor was developed by William Shockley in 1947.
In this generation of computers, magnetized cores were used for primary memory and magnetized tape and magnetized disks were used for secondary memory. This computer used Batch processing and multiprogramming.

IBM 1620
IBM 1620

Features of second-generation computers -

  • Manufactured by Transistor
  • Were more reliable than the first generation
  • It used assembly and high-level language such as Fortran, Cobol.
  • Smaller in size than the first generation
  • They produced less heat
  • Less electricity was used than the first generation
  • Faster than earlier computers
  • AC required

Names of second-generation computers

  • IBM 1620
  • IBM 7094
  • CDC 1604
  • CDC 3600
  • UNIVAC 1108

Third generation of computer

The third generation period was considered from 1963-1972. In this generation, IC ie Integrated Circuit was used to replace the Transistor. The transistor was shortened to a silicon chip.

IBM 360
IBM 360 Model 91
Due to which the speed and efficiency of computers increased significantly. The IC was invented by Jack Kilby. This generation of computers used remote processing, time-sharing, and multiprogramming operating systems.

Features of third-generation computers -

  • Use of Integrated Circuit
  • More reliable than the first and second generation
  • Small and fast in size but still hard to maintain
  • Less energy consumption than other generation
  • AC required
  • Use of Mouse and Keyboard
  • Use of high-level language such as FORTRAN-I to IV, COBOL, PASCAL, BASIC, ALGOL

Names of third-generation computers

  • IBM-360 Series
  • Honeywell - 6000 series
  • PDP (Personal Data Processor)
  • IBM-370/168
  • TDC-316

Fourth generation of computers

The fourth-generation period is assumed to be from 1972–1984. VSLI (Very Large Scale Integrated) circuits were used in this generation of computers. 

This VLSI circuit consists of about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements on a single silicon chip. Which is called Micro Processor.

EPFL_CRAY (Super Computer)
EPFL_CRAY (Super Computer)
The first Micro Processor was first introduced by Intel in 1971. That was invented by his employee. They named it Intel 4004.

Whereas in 1981 IBM developed Micro Computer, called Personal Computer (PC), and Apple introduced Macintosh (Personal Computer) in 1989.

These computers were increasingly used in every sphere of life. Because they were cheaper, faster and more reliable than other generation computers.

Internet, GUI (Graphical User Interface) and operating systems such as MS-Dos, MS Window and Apple OS were developed in fourth generation computers.

Features of fourth-generation computers -

  • Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit used
  • Less expense and faster
  • Smaller in size and less expensive
  • Very little use of electricity
  • No AC required
  • Maintenance simple
  • Easy to operate and walk
  • Use of high-level language like - C, C ++, DBASE

Names of fourth-generation computers

  • Dec 10
  • Star 1000
  • PDP 11
  • CRAY-1
  • CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer)
  • PCs

Fifth-generation of computer

The fifth-generation period is considered from 1984–1990. In this generation computers of the present and future computers are included. Computers of this generation are more powerful, faster, higher-tech, and have more memory.

It used the ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integrated) circuit, this ULSI Microprocessor can have about one crore components. This generation is mainly related to Parallel Processing Hardware Artificial Intelligence software.
5th Generation PC
5th Generation PC
The fifth-generation aims to develop such devices. that can respond to people used in common language. This makes computers work like humans. They use high-level languages like C, C ++, and Java.

Features of fifth-generation computers -

  • Use of ULSI technology
  • Development of Artificial Intelligence
  • Using Portable PC and Desktop PC
  • Internet, E-mail and WWW (World Wide Web) developed
  • User-friendly interface and development
  • Multimedia features like sound, graphics, images, and text were created.
  • Use of high-level languages ​​like C, C ++, Java, .Net and ASP
  • Faster, reliable and cheaper

Names of fifth-generation computers

  • Desktop
  • Laptop
  • Notebook
  • Ultrabook
  • Chromebook

Sixth generation of computers

The sixth-generation is defined as the era of intelligent computers. The beginning of this generation has been considered since 1990. 

that is based on Artificial neural networks i.e. Artificial Neural Network or Artificial Intelligence.

This computer uses a superconductor for Processor. Which do not waste electricity and save energy. The computers of this generation are much smaller, faster and more powerful in size.
Sixth-generation computers use Intel Pentium and Intel Celeron processors. But this processor is now coming in the form of dual-core, triple-core, quad-core.

This processor is equivalent to running two CPUs, three CPUs and three CPUs.
This generation also recognized voice because this generation of computers has the ability to learn through various types of Advance Algorithm. 

This improved technology allows the computer to input and recognize words.

processing quantum bits; this computer is faster and more reliable than other generation computers. This technology works together with the processor and memory of the computer.

While using this technique, complex languages ​​like English, Chinese, French and Spanish are easily processed. Now with this technology, computers can understand languages.

While Voice recognition is a boon for students and the disabled. You can also work by speaking without touching the physical device. It is used for laboratory clean rooms, surgical operating rooms and customer service.

Sixth Generation Computer Features -

  • Using Multiple Processor
  • Use of Parallel Vector Technology
  • Nano Technology
  • Quantum computing bits
  • One chip has millions of components using ULSI technology.
  • very small in size
  • Lesser and faster

Sixth Generation Computer -

  • Optical computers-optical computers used photons. The speed of which is very high. A blue laser search conducted by Donald Frazier found that this technique develops super-fast, lightweight and minicomputer costs.

  • Hologram Computer-Hologram is a three-dimensional picture. Which are made by recording the intensity of light. Thus, it creates a suitable illuminate ie light fixture. Its shape can be a pen, a watch or anything.

Hologram technology
Hologram Computer

  • Parallel Vector computer– Fujitsu Corporation is planning to build a system with more than 200 vector processors. However this sixth generation computer has another goal. Tera flops mean achieving ten arithmetic operations per second and this can be done by constructing a scheme with more than a thousand processor. Another major development of Fujitsu is WAN.

Seventh generation of computer

Seventh Generation means the release of a new Processor.
Processor releases are usually 1-3 times a year. This type of development is called Tick-Tock. Tick ​​means new architecture and Tock means improvements.


This generation desktop computer is based on the 7th generation "Intel core Processor". The computers are smart, stylish design and fit according to budget and needs according to a range of sizes.

Features of seventh-generation computer -

  • It consists of 4K video and 360 viewing on a full-size screen.
  • Today's modern games can be played smoothly on the computers of this generation.
  • Watch 4K HDR movies with Ultra HD Blue-ray for excellent clarity and Luminance 1.
  • Quick sync video technology enhances the capabilities of most videos.
  • With the help of Hyper-Threading Technology you can multitask without any interruptions.
  • With the help of AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) user data also has a strong security on Email, Internet and Local Disk.
  • With intelligent software, the system helps in faster work and quick completion of commands.

The funny thing is that VLSI has made the computer very small. AI has been used in the fifth generation. 

From the main features of generation, you came to know how successful which technology was in the beginning, if not still remembered, then read this article once more.

I hope you liked my article and I was able to give you complete information. To increase my encouragement, share my post with your friends and on social media, like WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, etc.

The Calculating Devices were developed and with the help of this technology the computer was developed.

You should read this article "History of Calculation | History of Calculating Devices (Part-I & Part-II)". Click on the link below to read this article.

Part-I         Part-II

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